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A Scalable Workflow to Build Machine Learning Classifiers with Clinician-in-the-Loop to Identify Patients in Specific Diseases

Clinicians may rely on medical coding systems such as International Classification of Diseases (ICD) to identify patients with diseases from Electronic Health Records (EHRs). However, due to the lack of detail and specificity as well as a probability of miscoding, recent studies suggest the ICD codes often cannot characterise patients accurately for specific diseases in real clinical practice, and as a result, using them to find patients for studies or trials can result in high failure rates and missing out on uncoded patients. Manual inspection of all patients at scale is not feasible as it is highly costly and slow.

This paper proposes a scalable workflow which leverages both structured data and unstructured textual notes from EHRs with techniques including NLP, AutoML and Clinician-in-the-Loop mechanism to build machine learning classifiers to identify patients at scale with given diseases, especially those who might currently be miscoded or missed by ICD codes.

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